PM MODI TO PEOPLE OF J&K, LADAKH: YOUR REPRESENTATIVES WILL BE ELECTED BY YOU, AMONG YOU
Why in News?
- Indian Prime Minister has addressed the nation for the first time since the Parliament has approved the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019.
- The order effectively abrogates the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under the provision of Article 370.
- The Parliament has also passed the Jammu and Kashmir (Reorganisation) Bill, 2019.
- The bill bifurcates the State into two separate union territories of Jammu and Kashmir (with legislature) and Ladakh (without legislature).
- Prime minister has assured the J&K that Article 370 of the Constitution had been removed for their benefit, to fulfill the aspirations of the people, and to lift roadblocks on the path to development and progress of the region.
- Prime minister said that Jammu & Kashmir will not remain a Union territory for long and would regain its statehood.
- However, the UT status for Ladakh will continue with the Centre seeing it as its special responsibility.
- He also said that Article 370 had failed to benefit J&K and has only led to separatism, terrorism and corruption.
- He also emphasised that doing away with Article 370 and the reorganisation of J&K was an internal matter of India.
- He said that doing away of Article 370 and scrapping of Article 35A would soon see their negative effects fading away.
- The important laws like right to education and political reservations for SCs and STs would apply to J&K.
- Further, he said that a plant in Ladakh called Solo which is a boon to those living in high altitudes can be sold worldwide as it has vast medicinal properties.
Samagra Shiksha-jal Suraksha
‘Samagra Shiksha-Jal Suraksha’ Drive has been launched by the Department of School Education & Literacy, HRD Ministry to create awareness about water conservation among all school students in the country.
Objectives of the scheme:
- To educate students learn about conservation of water.
- To sensitize Students about the impact of scarcity of water.
- To empower Students to learn to protect the natural sources of water.
- To help every Student to save at least one litre of water per day.
- To encourage Students towards judicious use and minimum wastage of water at home and school level.
- One Student – One Year – Save 365 Litres Water.
- One Student – 10 Years – Save 3650 Litres Water.
World Biofuel Day
World Biofuel Day is observed every year on 10th August.
Aim: to create awareness about the importance of non-fossil fuels as an alternative to conventional fossil fuels and to highlight the various efforts made by the Government in the biofuel sector.
Theme 2019: ‘Production of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil (UCO)’.
Why August 10?
On this day in 1893, Sir Rudolph Diesel (inventor of the diesel engine) for the first time successfully ran mechanical engine with Peanut Oil.
His research experiment had predicted that vegetable oil is going to replace the fossil fuels in the next century to fuel different mechanical engines. Thus to mark this extraordinary achievement, World Biofuel Day is observed every year on 10th August.
Government of India initiatives to promote the use of Biofuels:
Since 2014, the Government of India has taken a number of initiatives to increase blending of biofuels.
- The major interventions include administrative price mechanism for ethanol, simplifying the procurement procedures of OMCs, amending the provisions of Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951 and enabling lignocellulosic route for ethanol procurement.
- The Government approved the National Policy on Biofuels-2018 in June 2018. The policy has the objective of reaching 20% ethanol-blending and 5% biodiesel-blending by the year 2030.
- Among other things, the policy expands the scope of feedstock for ethanol production and has provided for incentives for production of advanced biofuels.
- The Government has also increased the price of C-heavy molasses-based ethanol.
What is Simla Agreement?
United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres has expressed concern over the situation in Jammu and Kashmir. Referring to the Simla Agreement, which was signed by India and Pakistan in 1972, Guterres said the “final status of J&K is to be settled by peaceful means, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations”.
What is Simla Agreement and why was it signed?
The Simla Agreement was signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 2 July 1972, following a full-blown war between India and Pakistan in 1971.
The Simla Agreement was “much more than a peace treaty seeking to reverse the consequences of the 1971 war (i.e. to bring about withdrawals of troops and an exchange of PoWs).” It was a comprehensive blue print for good neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan.
Under the Simla Agreement both countries undertook to abjure conflict and confrontation which had marred relations in the past, and to work towards the establishment of durable peace, friendship and cooperation.
The two countries not only agreed to put an end to “conflict and confrontation” but also work for the “promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of durable peace in the sub-continent, so that both countries may henceforth devote their resources and energies to the pressing talk of advancing the welfare of their peoples.”
How was this to be achieved?
In order to achieve this objective, both the governments agreed that that the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations would govern bilateral relations and differences would be resolved by “peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them.”
Regarding Jammu and Kashmir, the two sides had agreed that the line of control “resulting from the cease-fire of December 17, 1971 shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognized position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from the threat or the use of force in violation of this Line.”
Both governments had also agreed that their respective Heads would meet again at a “mutually convenient time in the future the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities and arrangements for the establishment of durable peace and normalization of relations, including the questions of repatriation of prisoners of war and civilian internees, a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir and the resumption of diplomatic relations.”
India had three primary objectives at Shimla:
- First, a lasting solution to the Kashmir issue or, failing that, an agreement that would constrain Pakistan from involving third parties in discussions about the future of Kashmir.
- Second, it was hoped that the Agreement would allow for a new beginning in relations with Pakistanbased upon Pakistan’s acceptance of the new balance of power.
- Third, it left open the possibility of achieving both these objectives without pushing Pakistan to the wall and creating a revanchist anti-India regime.
Gogabeel is Bihar’s first community reserve
Gogabeel, an ox-bow lake in Bihar’s Katihar district, has been declared as the state’s first ‘Community Reserve’.
Gogabeel is formed from the flow of the rivers Mahananda and Kankhar in the north and the Ganga in the south and east. It is the fifteenth Protected Area (PA) in Bihar